Transcranial Stimulation sends a small electric current into specific regions of the brain. U optimizes how the current is delivered portably.
Noninvasive Stimulation Techniques
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) is a procedure where current is sent into the brain to cause a brief seizure. A large amount of power is needed and it is used to treat disorders such as Major Depressive Disorder, Catatonia, Parkinson’s Disease, and Mania. Cost: $25,000>
Transcranial Current Stimulation (tCS) is a treatment that passes a small amount of current to help ‘stimulate’ areas of the brain. Electrodes, or sponges, are placed on either side of the head the electrical field passes between them to stimulate the areas in between. However, it has been shown that TCS cannot stimulate well due to unoptimized current delivery. Cost: ~$300
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) uses large magnetic fields that can enter the brain and stimulate neurons near the surface of the skull. It has shown to be effective for disorders such as OCD, Major Depressive Disorder, and some forms of Dementia. Although sometimes effective, it can come at a high price. Cost: ~$15,000
Temporal Interference (TI) emerged from Ed Boyden’s lab at MIT in 2017. This method of stimulation uses multiple high-frequency electric fields that interfere in deep regions of the brain without stimulating other areas. The problem with TI is the scattering of electrodes across the entire skull and the inability to localize the field as well as other techniques.
Intersectional Short Pulse (ISP) is another recent revelation in the neuromodulation field coming from Dr. Buzaki’s lab at NYU. ISP crosses electric fields in a region deep inside the brain so the electric fields could add together and stimulate deep regions relatively similar to DBS. However, because it uses multiple electric fields, it uses many electrodes that cannot be easily integrated into a product. Furthermore, the scattering of electrodes can lead to skin pain and flashes in the visual field.
At U: The Brain Company, we are combining the best qualities of each noninvasive approach while keeping it cost-effective and portable.